Photo of the day (57): Daudebardia rufa

Daudebardia rufa is a carnivorous semi-slug. It belong to the subfamily Daudebardiinae within the family Oxychilidae or it can be classified in a separate family Daudebardiidae.

They are uncommon, because they can not live in highly altered forest monocultures. They require sufficiently humid forests with enough leaf litter, logs and fallen wood. There should be enough prey such as earthworms and snails. Humid habitat is necessary, because they have no shell large enough to protect them against droughts. My Daudebardia rufa comes from Moravia, the Czech Republic.

The right side view looks like this. The large muscular body has some tubercles. There is visible a pneumostome (breathing pore) bellow the shell. The body length of this specimen is 17 mm.
Daudebardia rufaThe shell looks like this:
Daudebardia rufaReferences

no references

Photo of the day (55): Oxychilus glaber

Oxychilus glaber is a species of a herbivorous and carnivorous land snail in the family Oxychilidae. Its distribution is South European and Central European. It live in woods. Its umbilicus is narrow and its spire is high in comparison with other Oxychilus species.

My snail comes from the Czech Republic. It is not common species. It is nearly threatened in the Czech Republic and it is threatened with extinction in Germany.

Right side view:

Oxychilus glaberApical view:

Oxychilus glaberReferences

Species summary for Oxychilus glaber. AnimalBase, last change 8 December 2013, accessed 14 September 2016.

Beran L., Juřičková L. & Horsák M. 2005: Mollusca (měkkýši), pp. 69-74. – In: Farkač J., Král D. & Škorpík M. [eds.], Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí. Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. – Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Praha, 760 pp.

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 34 and page 108.

Wiese W. (2014) Die Landschnecken Deutschlands: Finden – Erkennen – Bestimmen. Quelle & Meyer, 352 pp., page 188.

Photo of the day (20): Aegopinella nitidula

Aegopinella nitidula is a land snail living in wet habitats. This specimen is from northern Bohemia. The proper determination requires dissection but another malacologist determined it in situ based on its appearance and detailed knowledge of local malacofauna. There are usually only informations about its shell and about its reproductive system available in books. Its shell is red-brown in color. The only information about a live snail is usually like this: The color of the body is dark.

So enjoy the photo of this snail:


Apical view:


According to tables in Falkner et al. (2001) feeding habits are like this: It prefer dead plants. It is sometimes carnivorous/saprophagous. It rarely eat also living algae and fungi.

I gave fresh leaves of Trifolium repens as a food source and a Trochulus hispidus as a prey for this snail. I was hoping that it will be enough for my AegopinellaAegopinella died after about 7-10 days but Trochulus survived in the same conditions. I am not sure if Aegopinella nitidula was eating those leaves and if it would eat those leaves after some time. It did not eat the Trochulus hispidus so I think that it can not predate an adult Trochulus hispidus that has approximatelly the same size as Aegopinella.

Your infomations about feeding habits of Aegopinella nitidula are welcomed.


Falkner G., Obrdlík P., Castella E. & Speight M. C. D. (2001). Shelled Gastropoda of Western Europe. München: Friedrich-Held-Gesellschaft, 267 pp.

(in Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. 2010: Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]. – Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37.

How does Oxychilus draparnaudi eat

Finally I have taken some photos of Oxychilus draparnaudi feeding on Trochulus hispidus after two months and half of keeping it.

I have taken the first photo on 15 October 10:34 AM and it stopped feeding on 10:52 AM. Although it is referred as a nocturnal animal, I was glad to see it feeding on daylight. It was sunny day, so taking photos was not difficult.

The first photo shows the foot, because it was feeding on the transparent lid of the terrarium. The predator was holding the whole of its prey when it was upside down.


Then I have removed the lid and rotated the lid to take these photos:


First photos immeditelly after the feeding:


Usually after the feeding process are shells empty and clean. I have probably distrubed its feeding process, because it seems that it have eaten the body of the first 3/4 of the first whorl only. The same shell of Trochulus hispidus still contain some material inside:


Open data:

continuously updated spreadsheet with data what Oxychilus draparnaudi have eaten.


Photo of the day (11): Perpolita hammonis

Perpolita hammonis is a small land snail. It is also known as Nesovitrea hammonis. It lives in Palearctic. It is quite common species, that lives in forests as well as in open habitats. Although it belongs to Oxychilidae, it can be easily identified, because it has regular radial ribs on the shell that are clearly visible under any magnifying glass.


It prefer from moist to wet humidity, so I keep them rather in wet environment.



Falkner G., Obrdlík P., Castella E. & Speight M. C. D. (2001). Shelled Gastropoda of Western Europe. München: Friedrich-Held-Gesellschaft, 267 pp.

(in Slovak) Lisický M. J. (1991). Mollusca Slovenska [The Slovak molluscs]. VEDA vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, Bratislava, 344 pp.

How does Oxychilus hunt?

I wanted to see how the predaceous snail Oxychilus draparnaudi hunts and eats its prey. It is called to be typical predaceous species. But after 10 days of keeping it at home I have not seen it hunting yet.

3rd August – I have collected the snail Oxychilus draparnaudi (shell width 7.5 mm). Locality: Olomouc, Czech Republic.


4th August – no food

5th August – added 3 Trochulus hispidus. They have cucumber as a food source. Even when the predator was at least one day without the food and its prey has been crawling on the predator’s body, it has not been hunting them during the day.


6th August – found Trochulus hispidus (shell width 4.0 mm) eaten

7th August – found Trochulus hispidus (shell width 5.5 mm) eaten at 9:01 and I have taken the photo of Oxychilus above the empty shell.
–  added 6 Trochulus hispidus
– added 2 adult Laciniaria plicata. I have no idea if it will be able to eat them.


8th August – found Trochulus hispidus (shell width 5.0 mm) eaten

9th August – found Trochulus hispidus (shell width 3.5 mm) eaten

10th August – nothing

11th August – found Trochulus hispidus (shell width 3.5 mm) eaten

12th August – nothing

13th August – nothing, measured Oxychilus draparnaudi (shell width is still 7.5 mm)

All my controls when I have found empty shells, were during the day, but the Oxychilus draparnaudi is nocturnal. Some controls were at night.
It have eaten 5 snails during 10 days.
I found no damage on shells of the eaten Trochulus and shells were completely clean inside (but with water).

Any hints how to see it hunting?