Macrochlamys amboinensis

Macrochlamys amboinensis (von Martens, 1864) is a land snail from the family Ariophantidae. Its synonym is Tanychlamys amboinensis. This south-eastern Asian family has – among other ones – two interesting features: extended mantle called mantle collar and caudal horn on the tail.

I received few live snails named Tanychlamys amboinensis. I do not know the locality. I checked out everything about Tanychlamys amboinensis and found out that it is a synonym of Macrochlamys amboinensis (because recent malacologists use the name Macrochlamys). I can not be sure, that my snails are Macrochlamys amboinensis species surely, because I did not checked out all other Macrochlamys species, but the identification seems to be correct. I checked out all resources what I was able to find and I compiled the following overview of the history of research of this species:

This species was described by German malacologist and zoologist Eduard von Martens under the name Hyalina amboinensis in 1864. The type locality is “Mollukische Inseln der Amboinagruppe: Buru, Amboina und Banda-Nera”. The specific name amboinensis refer to the Ambon Island in Indonesia. It has been also spelled Amboyna, Amboina, and Amboine.

Von Martens did not depicted this new species in 1864, but he did it three years later, in 1867. Drawing of a shell of Macrochlamys amboinensis by von Martens (1867):
Macrochlamys amboinensisGerman malacologist Stefan Clessin classified this species as Hyalina (Polita) amboinensis in 1881.

American malacologist George Wahington Tryon classified this species as Zonites (Hyalinia) amboinensis within the family Zonitidae in 1886. The family Ariophantidae was established two years later, in 1888. Drawing of a shell of Macrochlamys amboinensis by G. W. Tryon (1886):
Macrochlamys amboinensisDutch malacologist Woutera Sophie Suzanna van Benthem Jutting reported this species from the West Java. She firstly thought, that this species belong to the family Zonitidae and later she classified it as Tanychlamys amboinensis within family Helicarionidae in 1952. She reported only specimen in shell width of 12-13 mm. As of shell features and radula depiction I would recommend van Benthem Jutting’s description.

For distinguishing from other species this can help a bit: The last whorl is well-rounded. Apex of Macrochlamys amboinensis is rounded in comparison with other similar species in the genus.

Its distribution include Vietnam, and various islands in Indonesia, for example also Sumatra. It live in forests on limestone mountains in Vietnam. It lives from 700 m a. s. l. to more than 2958 m a. s. l in West Java. According to von Martens, it lives on the ground under moist leaves together with Stenogyra snails (family Subulinidae). Van Benthem Jutting also reported that is lives on the ground.

 

This snail has a shell width 18 mm and shell height 9 mm.

Left side view:
Macrochlamys amboinensisAnother left side view:
Macrochlamys amboinensisJust another left side view:
Macrochlamys amboinensisThree right side views:
Macrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisTwo dorsal views:
Macrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisUmbilical view:
Macrochlamys amboinensisFoot:
Macrochlamys amboinensis


Another Macrochlamys amboinensis snail has a shell width 15 mm and shell height 8 mm.

Right side view:
Macrochlamys amboinensisThere is visible a tentacle like extension of the mantle of the right side of the body on this right side view. It is called a lobe on mantle collar:
Macrochlamys amboinensisAnother view of the mantle extension shows that this specimen has two lobes; on on the right side and one on the left side. The genus can have from one to four lobes on the mantle collar.
Macrochlamys amboinensisCaudal horn on the tip of the tail. The caudal horn is not always clearly visible on Macrochlamys amboinensis, but it can be seen quite good on this photo:
Macrochlamys amboinensisTop side view:

Macrochlamys amboinensis

Four different views of the Macrochlamys amboinensis on my hand:
Macrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensisMacrochlamys amboinensis can be fed by vegetables in captivity. My snails normally consume leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata).

If you will found out other resources on this species, let me to know. This species seems to be easy to keep in captivity, so hopefully some informations about its life cycle will be available in the future.

References (in chronological order)

(in Latin and in German) von Martens E. (1864). Über eine neue Art von Rochen, Trygonoptera javanica aus Batavia und über neue Heliceen aus dem indischen Archipel. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 260-270, pages 266-267.

(in German) von Martens E. (1867) Die Preussische expedition nach Ost-Asien nach amtlichen Quellen. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band, pages 244-245, plate 12, figure 11.

Clessin S. (1881). Nomenclator heliceorum viventium. Opus postumum Ludovici Pfeiffer. page 66.

Tryon G. W. (1886). Volume 2. Zonitidae. Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, page 170, plate 52, figures 6-8.

Jutting W. S. V. B. (1952). Systematic studies on the non-marine mollusca of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Treubia 21(2): 291-435. doi: 10.14203/treubia.v21i2.2661, PDF.

Vermeulen J. J. (1996). Notes on terrestrial molluscs of Java, Bali and Nusa Penida. Basteria 59(4/6): 149-162.

Nhuong, D. V., & Dung, D. P. (2012). Data on land snails (Gastropoda) in Tay Trang area, Dien Bien province. TAP CHI SINH HOC, 34(4): 397-404.

Khac, H. N., Khac, H. N., & Anh, K. T. (2012). Preliminary data on lansnails (sic!) (Gastropoda) in Xom Du village, Xuan Son national park, Phu Tho province. TAP CHI SINH HOC, 32(1): 13-16.

Marwoto, R. (2017). Keong Darat dari Sumatera (Moluska, Gastropoda). ZOO INDONESIA, 25(1): 8-21.

Advertisements

Photo of the day (64): scalarid Helix pomatia

This is a deformed shell of a common Roman snail Helix pomatia. It is called scalarid shell. This deformation happens, when the mantle of the snail is damaged during the embryonic development. Therefore such shells are unobvious and rare. It is teratological specimen in general. “Teratological” means, that it has developed abnormally during its ontogeny – during the development of the individual.

Scalarid shell of Helix pomatiaI have never seen scalarid shell of Helix pomatia by naked eye before. I have taken this photo of shell in the Waldstein Riding School, Prague. It is a part of Cabinet of curiosities in the exhibition by František Skála.

References

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. 2013: Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 142.

Photo of the day (62): Achatinidae shells

There is a small display of shells from the family Achatinidae in one of new houses called House of Evolution in the Ostrava ZOO, Czech Republic. All Achatinidae species comes from Africa, but some of them spreaded to other continents by human activities as pests and pets.

Table with shells of AchatinidaeThere are the following species on display:
Archachatina marginata marginata from Cameroon,
Limicolaria numidica from Cameroon,
Achatina achatina from Ghana,
Limicolaria flammea from Ghana,
Archachatina marginata candefacta from Cameroon,
Achatina balteata infrafusca from Congo,
Pseudachatina connectens rollei from Cameroon,
Archachatina papyracea adelinae from Cameroon,
Archachatina puylaerti from Togo,
Archachatina porphyrostoma from Nigeria,
Archachatina marginata suturalis from Nigeria.

These are just 11 samples of the diversity of Achatinidae, that contains 176 species and subspecies.
Achatinidae shellsReferences

Protiva T. 2011: Oblovky plži čeledi Achatinidae. – Robimaus, 72 pp., ISBN 9788087293225. page 6. (in Czech)

Photo of the day (61): Ena montana

Ena montana is a species of a common land snail with Central European, Alpine and Carpathian distribution. It belong to the family Enidae. It is similar to Merdigera obscura, but they differ in size. Ena montana reach shell length up to 16 mm, while Merdigera obscura can grown up to 9 mm only.

Left side view of Ena montana crawling on a calcareous rock:

Ena montanaIt is the only species of Ena occurring in Central Europe. Other Ena species live in southern Europe.

My specimen comes from Velká Fatra Mountains, Slovakia. I have taken the photo in situ on a calcareous rock in the forest. But they also inhabits humid habitats in forests in lowlands.

It feeds mainly on living algae, sometimes on dead higher plants and rarely also on lichens.

References:

Falkner G., Obrdlík P., Castella E. & Speight M. C. D. 2001: Shelled Gastropoda of Western Europe. München: Friedrich-Held-Gesellschaft, 267 pp.

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. 2013: Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 32 and 82.

Photo of the day (59): Semilimax semilimax

Semilimax semilimax is a semi-slug with central European and Alpine distribution. It lives in moist forests. It is from the family Vitrinidae.

Left side view:
Semilimax semilimaxRight side view:
Semilimax semilimaxWhen I found those gastropods, I though, that I found two different species. Unfortunately all of them are the same species – Semilimax semilimax. I realized that in the lab some time later.

Six semi-slugs, five dark grey, one light grey and all of them are Semilimax semilimax:
Semilimax semilimaxIt is exactly as Welter Schultes wrote: “Animal light to dark grey”. They can vary in color even in one population as it is documented in this my record from central Moravia.

References

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 34 and page 111.

Welter Schultes F. (2013) Species summary for Semilimax semilimax. AnimalBase, last change 11 December 2013, accessed 28 November 2016.

Photo of the day (55): Oxychilus glaber

Oxychilus glaber is a species of a herbivorous and carnivorous land snail in the family Oxychilidae. Its distribution is South European and Central European. It live in woods. Its umbilicus is narrow and its spire is high in comparison with other Oxychilus species.

My snail comes from the Czech Republic. It is not common species. It is nearly threatened in the Czech Republic and it is threatened with extinction in Germany.

Right side view:

Oxychilus glaberApical view:

Oxychilus glaberReferences

Species summary for Oxychilus glaber. AnimalBase, last change 8 December 2013, accessed 14 September 2016.

Beran L., Juřičková L. & Horsák M. 2005: Mollusca (měkkýši), pp. 69-74. – In: Farkač J., Král D. & Škorpík M. [eds.], Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí. Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. – Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Praha, 760 pp.

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 34 and page 108.

Wiese W. (2014) Die Landschnecken Deutschlands: Finden – Erkennen – Bestimmen. Quelle & Meyer, 352 pp., page 188.

Photo of the day (51): Elisolimax from Madagascar

The photo of this land slug is from the tropical moist forest in northern Madagascar. It was identified according to the photo only. It is either Elisolimax bella or Elisolimax madagascariensis. Genus Elisolimax belong to the family Helicarionidae.

Locality: Madagascar, tropical moist forest, between Joffreville village and the entrance to the Amber Mountain National Park, coordinates: -12.502470, 49.201356, November 15, 2014. Photo by Martin Mandák.

I thank to Martin Mandák from the Czech Republic for taking the photo.

I thank to Owen Griffiths from Mauritius for the slug identification.

Elisolimax from Madagascar. Photo by Martin Mandák, CC-BY-4.0.

Elisolimax from Madagascar. Photo by Martin Mandák, CC-BY-4.0.

 

Photo of the day (49): Ambigolimax valentianus

Ambigolimax valentianus is a land slug from the family Limacidae. Its native distribution includes Iberian Peninsula only, but it is spreading in many other countries as an invasive species. It can live in greenhouses and similar habitats in cold areas only. It lives in greenhouses in Central Europe too. It is a pest in greenhouses and it is able to overpopulate and then it can be a serious pest. It can reach the length up to 70 mm.

Various views of the slug:

Ambigolimax valentianus

Ambigolimax valentianus

Ambigolimax valentianus

Ambigolimax valentianusThe foot is light gray:

Ambigolimax valentianusThere exist two forms of Ambigolimax valentianus: a form with two dark lateral bands and a a spotted form. The spotted form looks like this. It looks a bit yellow on the photo, but it is caused by the sunglight.

Ambigolimax valentianusIts eggs look like this. I found those eggs below the bowl for the potted plant.

Ambigolimax valentianusNotice the juvenile slug in the front. It is interesting that its egss will not survive temperatures above 33 °C.

A juvenile slug:

Ambigolimax valentianusAnother photo with juvenile slugs:

Ambigolimax valentianusThis species is also known as Lehmannia valentiana. In fact I did not known, that it could be placed in the genus Ambigolimax up today.

So I searched for reasons of its generic placement:

Klee et al. found out based on molecular phylogeny research of cytochrome-c oxidase I (COI) genes, that the genus Lehmannia is diphyletic in 2005. She also repeated the information in her thesis in 2013.

Rowson et al. confirmed such placement also according to the COI genes analysis in 2014. By the way, they did not comment this species in the PLoS article anyhow. They just shown the cladogram on the figure 5.

The results are:

Lehmannia marginata (O. F. Müller, 1774) still belong to the genus Lehmannia Heynemann, 1863, because it is the type species of the genus.

Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1822) belong to the genus Ambigolimax Pollonera, 1887 as a Ambigolimax valentiana (Férussac, 1822). It is the type species of the genus Ambigolimax.

Lehmannia nyctelia (Bourguignat, 1861) also belong to the genus Ambigolimax as Ambigolimax nyctelius (Bourguignat, 1861).

There is a question, where will belong other 13 European species of Lehmannia. Especially those ones, whose reproductive system is not known.

References

Horsák M., Dvořák L. & Juřičková L. (2004) Greenhouse gastropods of the Czech Republic: current stage of research. Malacological Newsletter, 22: 141–147, page 143.

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 163.

Klee B., Falkner G. & Haszprunar G (2005). Endemic radiations of Limax (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora) slugs in Corsica – they came twice. In: Burckhardt D (ed.), 8. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für biologische Systematik, Basel 13.-16. September 2005, Abstracts of talks and posters: p.78. Basel (Naturhistorisches Museum). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 5, Electr. Suppl. 13: 75.

Nitz. B. (2013). Integrative systematics and biogeography of Limax (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Dissertation Thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, 133 pp., page 105.

Rowson B., Anderson R., Turner J. & Symondson W. O. C. (2014). The slugs of Britain and Ireland: undetected and undescribed species increase a well-studied, economically important fauna by more than 20%. PLoS ONE 9(4): e91907. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091907

Stojnić B., Vukša M., Jokić G. & Čkrkić M. (2011). First record of introduced valencia slug, Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1822), in Serbia. Pesticidi i fitomedicina, 26(3): 213–220. doi:10.2298/PIF1103213S

Udaka H., Mori M., Goto S. G. & Numata H. (2007). Seasonal reproductive cycle in relation to tolerance to high temperatures in the terrestrial slug Lehmannia valentiana. Invertebrate Biology, 126(2): 154–162.

Photo of the day (46): Tandonia rustica and Tandonia kusceri

Updated on July 8, 2016.

Tandonia rustica is a land slug with Central European and South European distribution.

Its native distribution include Bohemia such as this juvenile one from the Northern Bohemia:

Tandonia rusticaIt has small dots.

Its coloration differ slightly from other Tandonia species. These slugs from Bratislava City in Slovakia are Tandonia kusceri. It is non-indigenous in Slovakia.

a group of Tandonia rustica

dorsal view of a Tandonia rusticaReferences

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 34 and page 113.

Korábek O., Čejka T. & Juřičková L. (2016): Tandonia kusceri (Pulmonata: Milacidae), a slug new for Slovakia. – Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, 15: 3–8.

Photo of the day (43): Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa is a clausiliid living in forests on limestone rocks. Its shell measure up to 9.5 mm and it is the smallest species in the genus Clausilia.

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

The locality is Průchodnice Nature Reserve in the Czech Republic. It is a deciduous forest reserve with European beech Fagus sylvatica on limestone rocks. There are also remnants of caves by Upper Paleolithic men (Magdalenian culture). It is a nice reserve especially in April:

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

Clausilia rugosa

References

Hlaváč J. Č. (2002) Molluscan fauna of the Javoříčský Karst (Czech Republic, central Moravia). Malacological Newsletter, 20: 93–105.

Horsák M., Juřičková L. & Picka J. (2013) Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Molluscs of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Kabourek, Zlín, 264 pp. (in Czech and English). page 89.